Homo sapiens Protein: SP1
InnateDB Protein IDBP-36618.6
Last Modified 2014-10-13 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol SP1
Protein Name Sp1 transcription factor
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Protein ENSP00000329357
InnateDB Gene IDBG-36616 (SP1)
Protein Structure
UniProt Annotation
Function Transcription factor that can activate or repress transcription in response to physiological and pathological stimuli. Binds with high affinity to GC-rich motifs and regulates the expression of a large number of genes involved in a variety of processes such as cell growth, apoptosis, differentiation and immune responses. Highly regulated by post-translational modifications (phosphorylations, sumoylation, proteolytic cleavage, glycosylation and acetylation). Binds also the PDGFR- alpha G-box promoter. May have a role in modulating the cellular response to DNA damage. Implicated in chromatin remodeling. Plays a role in the recruitment of SMARCA4/BRG1 on the c-FOS promoter. Plays an essential role in the regulation of FE65 gene expression. In complex with ATF7IP, maintains telomerase activity in cancer cells by inducing TERT and TERC gene expression. Isoform 3 is a stronger activator of transcription than isoform 1. Positively regulates the transcription of the core clock component ARNTL/BMAL1. {ECO:0000269PubMed:10391891, ECO:0000269PubMed:11371615, ECO:0000269PubMed:11904305, ECO:0000269PubMed:14593115, ECO:0000269PubMed:16377629, ECO:0000269PubMed:16478997, ECO:0000269PubMed:16943418, ECO:0000269PubMed:17049555, ECO:0000269PubMed:18171990, ECO:0000269PubMed:18199680, ECO:0000269PubMed:18239466, ECO:0000269PubMed:18513490, ECO:0000269PubMed:18619531, ECO:0000269PubMed:19193796, ECO:0000269PubMed:20091743, ECO:0000269PubMed:21798247}.
Subcellular Localization Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Note=Nuclear location is governed by glycosylated/phosphorylated states. Insulin promotes nuclear location, while glucagon favors cytoplasmic location.
Disease Associations
Tissue Specificity Up-regulated in adenocarcinomas of the stomach (at protein level). Isoform 3 is ubiquitously expressed at low levels. {ECO:0000269PubMed:21798247}.
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 357 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 25 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
Experimentally validated
Total 362 [view]
Protein-Protein 304 [view]
Protein-DNA 53 [view]
Protein-RNA 1 [view]
DNA-DNA 4 [view]
Predicted by orthology
Total 25 [view]
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0000978 RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0000979 RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0000987 core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0001046 core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0001077 RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription
GO:0001103 RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding
GO:0003677 DNA binding
GO:0003690 double-stranded DNA binding
GO:0003700 sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0008022 protein C-terminus binding
GO:0008134 transcription factor binding
GO:0035035 histone acetyltransferase binding
GO:0035326 enhancer binding
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity
GO:0042826 histone deacetylase binding
GO:0043425 bHLH transcription factor binding
GO:0043565 sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0044212 transcription regulatory region DNA binding
GO:0046872 metal ion binding
GO:0071837 HMG box domain binding
Biological Process
GO:0001503 ossification
GO:0001701 in utero embryonic development
GO:0001829 trophectodermal cell differentiation
GO:0001889 liver development
GO:0001892 embryonic placenta development
GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0006357 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter
GO:0007179 transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway
GO:0010467 gene expression
GO:0016032 viral process
GO:0030219 megakaryocyte differentiation
GO:0030324 lung development
GO:0043353 enucleate erythrocyte differentiation
GO:0043923 positive regulation by host of viral transcription
GO:0044255 cellular lipid metabolic process
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process
GO:0045893 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0045944 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
GO:0048596 embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis
GO:0048706 embryonic skeletal system development
GO:0060136 embryonic process involved in female pregnancy
GO:0060216 definitive hemopoiesis
Cellular Component
GO:0005634 nucleus
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0032993 protein-DNA complex
Protein Structure and Domains
InterPro IPR007087 Zinc finger, C2H2
IPR015880 Zinc finger, C2H2-like
PFAM PF00096
Post-translational Modifications
SwissProt P08047
PhosphoSite PhosphoSite-P08047
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 6667
UniGene Hs.649191
RefSeq NP_612482
OMIM 189906
HPRD 01796
EMBL AB039286 AC068889 AC073611 AF252284 AF255681 AF255682 AJ272134 BC043224 BC062539 CH471054 FJ949572 FN908228 J03133
GenPept AAA61154 AAF67726 AAF78780 AAF78781 AAH43224 AAH62539 ACR22508 BAB13476 CAB75345 CBM42955 EAW96699