Homo sapiens Gene: IL1A
InnateDB Gene IDBG-109509.1
Last Modified 2018-06-05 [Report errors or provide feedback]
Gene Symbol IL1A
Gene Name interleukin 1 alpha
Synonyms IL-1A; IL1; IL1-ALPHA; IL1F1
Species Homo sapiens
Ensembl Gene ENSG00000115008
Encoded Proteins
interleukin 1 alpha
Protein Structure
Useful resources Stemformatics EHFPI ImmGen
InnateDB Annotation
Interleukin-1 (IL1A/IL1B) plays a key role in the interaction between local vessel wall cells and invading monocytes to multiply cholesterol-triggered inflammation in the vessel wall.
IFNG interferes with the IL-1/NFKBIZ axis in β-glucan-activated dendritic cells and promotes T cell-mediated immune responses with increased release of IFNG and IL22, and diminished production of IL17A.
CASP4 is a critical regulator of noncanonical inflammasome activation that initiates defence against bacterial pathogens in primary macrophages by mediating cell death and IL1A release
IL1A directly senses DNA damage and acts as signal for genotoxic stress without loss of cell integrity.
InnateDB Annotation from Orthologs
[Mus musculus] Under acidic conditions both pro-inflammatory forms of Il1a and Il1b are regulated independently of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
[Mus musculus] In response to adenovirus infection, the IL1A-IL1R1-CXCR2 signalling axis cooperates with complement to recruit Ly-6G+7/4+ polymorphonuclear leukocytes to the splenic marginal zone (MZ) in the proximity of virus-containing MARCO+ residential MZ macrophages, which are subsequently eliminated.
[Mus musculus] NLRP3 inflammasome formation is dispensable for alum-induced innate immunity but Il1a and Il1b are both necessary for alum-induced neutrophil influx in vivo.
[Mus musculus] Il1a directly senses DNA damage and acts as signal for genotoxic stress without loss of cell integrity.
Entrez Gene
Summary The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This cytokine is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in various immune responses, inflammatory processes, and hematopoiesis. This cytokine is produced by monocytes and macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed and released in response to cell injury, and thus induces apoptosis. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. It has been suggested that the polymorphism of these genes is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer\'s disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Gene Information
Type Protein coding
Genomic Location Chromosome 2:112773915-112784590
Strand Reverse strand
Band q14.1
ENST00000263339 ENSP00000263339
Number of Interactions This gene and/or its encoded proteins are associated with 18 experimentally validated interaction(s) in this database.
They are also associated with 4 interaction(s) predicted by orthology.
Experimentally validated
Total 18 [view]
Protein-Protein 12 [view]
Protein-DNA 6 [view]
Protein-RNA 0
Predicted by orthology
Total 4 [view]
Gene Ontology

Molecular Function
Accession GO Term
GO:0005125 cytokine activity
GO:0005149 interleukin-1 receptor binding
GO:0005507 copper ion binding
GO:0005515 protein binding
Biological Process
GO:0001660 fever generation
GO:0002248 connective tissue replacement involved in inflammatory response wound healing
GO:0006915 apoptotic process
GO:0006954 inflammatory response
GO:0006955 immune response
GO:0008283 cell proliferation
GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0010469 regulation of receptor activity
GO:0010575 positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production
GO:0010628 positive regulation of gene expression
GO:0019221 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0032755 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production
GO:0034605 cellular response to heat
GO:0035234 ectopic germ cell programmed cell death
GO:0045086 positive regulation of interleukin-2 biosynthetic process
GO:0045766 positive regulation of angiogenesis
GO:0045840 positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division
GO:0045944 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
GO:0046688 response to copper ion
GO:0050714 positive regulation of protein secretion
GO:0050715 positive regulation of cytokine secretion
GO:0051781 positive regulation of cell division
GO:0070498 interleukin-1-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0071639 positive regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production
GO:0097192 extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand
GO:2000391 positive regulation of neutrophil extravasation
GO:2001240 negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand
Cellular Component
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005829 cytosol
Bos taurus
Mus musculus
Gene ID
Gene Order
Not yet available
IL1 pathway
Cellular responses to external stimuli pathway
Cellular responses to stress pathway
Interleukin-1 family signaling pathway
Signaling by Interleukins pathway
Interleukin-1 processing pathway
Immune System pathway
Interleukin-10 signaling pathway
Interleukin-1 signaling pathway
Cellular Senescence pathway
Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 signaling pathway
Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP) pathway
Cytokine Signaling in Immune system pathway
MAPK signaling pathway pathway
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway
Necroptosis pathway
Cellular senescence pathway
Osteoclast differentiation pathway
Hematopoietic cell lineage pathway
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathway
AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications pathway
Type I diabetes mellitus pathway
Prion diseases pathway
Salmonella infection pathway
Pertussis pathway
Leishmaniasis pathway
Tuberculosis pathway
Measles pathway
Influenza A pathway
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathway
Rheumatoid arthritis pathway
Graft-versus-host disease pathway
Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis pathway
GPCR signaling-cholera toxin-.owl pathway
IL-1 JNK.owl pathway
IL-1 p38.owl pathway
GPCR signaling-G alpha s Epac and ERK-.owl pathway
GPCR signaling-pertussis toxin-.owl pathway
GPCR signaling-G alpha q-.owl pathway
IL-1 NFkB.owl pathway
GPCR signaling-G alpha i-.owl pathway
GPCR signaling-G alpha s PKA and ERK-.owl pathway
IL1-mediated signaling events
Validated transcriptional targets of deltaNp63 isoforms
a6b1 and a6b4 Integrin signaling
SwissProt P01583
UniProt Splice Variant
Entrez Gene 3552
RefSeq NM_000575
OMIM 147760
EMBL AC112235 AF536338 AK314850 BC013142 BN000002 BT007014 CH471217 CR457414 M15329 M28983 X02531 X02851 X03833 X56086
GenPept AAA59133 AAA59134 AAH13142 AAM96189 AAP35660 AAX93054 BAG37367 CAA26371 CAA26604 CAA27448 CAA39566 CAD29871 CAG33695 EAW73604
RNA Seq Atlas 3552